Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries



                                                                         Williamsburg, VA                                                     Independence Hall, Philadelphia, PA



                                        Princeton Battlefield, Princeton, NJ                                                   Washington's Crossing, NJ


General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army fell near this spot during the battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777. Legend has it that Mercer was bayoneted several times by the British, and not wanting to leave his troops, rested under the oak tree while the battle was fought.  General Mercer was taken to the Clarke House where he died nine days later from his wounds.  Sadly, the tree was torn down by high winds on Friday March 3, 2000.  Gen. George Washington lead Continental Marines during that battle.  The Continental troops defeated the British on this occasion.  Just over one week before, Washington leads the Army in a surprise night attack across the Delaware River during a snow storm (at night) to defeat the Hessian (German) force garrisoning the town of Trenton (25-26 December 1776).  Two support divisions never made it across--Washington's troops had to do it on their own.  The French helped the American Colonies during that time ONLY because they opposed England.  Most historians agree that the success of the crossing was the turning point in the American Revolution.  George Washington was a whopping success.  Even England's King George admired the man, noting how Washington held a special ceremony after holding office to signify the return of power to someone else.  James McCrory, who was Morgan Forrest McCrory’s (my great-grandfather) Great Uncle, was the body guard to George Washington.


William H. McKelvy (grandfather of James W. McKelvy, my grandmother’s grandfather) served in Capt. Baldwin's Company, Col. Andrew Pickens SC Regiment of Infantry between 1776-1777.  He marched into Georgia against the Indians, and erved under Capt. William Wilson as a mounted militiaman. He was in the battle at Stono.


Valley Forge, Pennsylvania


The Brits had come back after the battle in Princeton.  In December of 1777, British forces descended upon Philadelphia (via the top of the Chesapeake Bay).  Washington, wanting to keep pressure on the Brits, decided to winter at Valley Forge.  Sure, the Continental troops went without and abundant supply of provisions, but they were well-trained (by former Prussian army officer General Von Steuben) and mostly on the offensive during this time.  They also took it upon themselves to build log cabins, make clothing and gear, and cook meals of their own concoction.  In May of 1778, when France signed on as an American ally, the Brits left Philadelphia as Washington's troops pursued close behind.  The Americans again had the advantage.


Richard Fields (my grandfather’s great-grandfather) served during the War of 1812 and Creek Indian War in 1814 under Gen. Andrew Jackson.


On Sept. 14, 1814, Francis Scott Key looked through clearing smoke to see a large flag flying proudly after a 25-hour British bombardment of Baltimore's Fort McHenry (during the War of 1812). Key was inspired to write a poem, which was later set to music. Even before "The Star-Spangled Banner" became our national anthem, it helped transform that garrison flag with the same name into a major national symbol of patriotism and identity. The flag has had a colorful history, from its origins in a government contract through its sojourn with several generations of a Baltimore family to its eventual donation to the Smithsonian Institution.



Fort McHenry, Baltimore, MD                                                         The Star Spangled Banner, Smithsonian Institution


Built as a chapel after 1744, the Alamo (the cradle of Texas liberty) is all that remains of the mission of San Antonio de Valero, which was founded in 1718 by Franciscans and later converted into a fortress.  In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain, but had a hard time afterwards economically.  They also had a hard time guarding their borders.  During the Texas Revolution, San Antonio was taken by Texas revolutionaries in December 1835, and was lightly garrisoned. When Mexican General Santa Anna approached with an army of several thousand in Feb., 1836, only some 150 men held the Alamo, and confusion, indifference, and bickering among insurgents throughout Texas prevented help from joining them, except for 32 volunteers from Gonzales who slipped through the Mexican siege lines. Defying surrender demands, the Texans in the fort determined to fight. The siege, which began Feb. 24, ended with hand-to-hand fighting within the walls on Mar. 6. William B. Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett , and some 180 other defenders died, but the heroic resistance roused fighting anger among Texans, who six weeks later defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto, crying, “Remember the Alamo!”



The Alamo, San Antonio, TX                                                      Cherokee Reservation, Cherokee, NC


Hernando de Soto first encountered the Cherokee in 1540.  They peacefully coexisted with the early settlers, but between 1684 and 1835 over 30 treaties chipped away at nearly 135,000 square miles of Cherokee territory.  In 1812, President Jackson signed the "Removal Treaty."  Starting in the Spring of 1837, and continuing through the Fall of 1838, the Cherokee were rounded up and sent 1200 miles to Oklahoma on what is now known as the "Trail of Tears."  16,000 started the journey--only 12,000 made it.  Descendants of those who hid in the Great Smokey Mountains to avoid removal are knows as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.  Today, 12,000 members of the Easter Band still reside on the Cherokee Indian Reservation.


From 1-3 July 1863, The Army of the Potomac, under MG George Meade, defeats Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Gettysburg, PA.  Combined casualties numbered over 50,000. That still does not compare to the one-day casualty figure at Antietam on 17 September 1862 (as Lee attempted to carry the war into the North)—over 23,000.  As Lee withdraws from Gettysburg, it ended the last Southern hopes for a military victory in the war.  John Henry Fields (my grandfather’s grandfather) joined the Confederate Army in 1863 and served in H Co., 12th Cavalry under Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest.  He was honorably discharged in 1865. 



Gettysburg, PA                                                                     Pistol of John H. Fields, Navy Colt 9-10-1851 Patent


Ransom Christopher Wheeler enlisted in the 29th Georgia Volunteer Regiment in 1861, and at one time served under Gen. Braxton Bragg.  In 1864 (as a Corporal) he was wounded, captured, and held as a POW.  He was later released in a prisoner exchange.  He was wounded in battle again, and served until the end of the war in 1865.


Corporal Ransom C. Wheeler, C.S.A.

(by his great-great grandson, Randy Young, W.D. Mitchell Sons of Confederate Veterans Camp #163, Thomasville, Georgia)


29th Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment, C.S.A.

Jackson Siege, July 1863; Chickamauga, September 19-20, 1863; Chattanooga Siege, September-November 1863; Chattanooga, November 23-25, 1863; Atlanta Campaign, May-September 1864; Atlanta Siege, July-September 1864; Franklin, November 30, 1864; Nashville, December 15-16, 1864; Carolinas Campaign, February-April 1865; Bentonville, March 19-20, 1865.


“Corporal Ransom C. Wheeler proudly served under the flag of the Confederacy while a part of the 29th Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment, comprised mostly of men from Thomas County, Georgia.


Born on October 3, 1832, in rural Thomas County and brought up in the meagerness of a farming family, Ransom was an uninvited witness to the last legal duel fought in Leon County, Florida, home of Tallahassee, the Florida capital just 15 miles to the south of the Thomas County line. Of course, small children were not allowed to attend such activities, but like any mischievous boy, eight-year-old Ransom decided the event was much too important to miss. He proceeded to climb to the top of a corn bin which allowed a view of the combatants, Mr. Reed and Mr. Austin, who had chosen pistols as their weapons. The location was surrounded by red clay hills to conceal the activity from others. Ransom told his children and grandchildren many times that he "saw the smoke from the guns before (he) heard the report". This duel took place in the spring of 1840; the following fall a law was passed that prohibited the activity.


Life as a young man growing up in Thomas County was simple for Wheeler, who worked on the family farm and for different plantations for subsidence. A deeply religious and avid outdoorsman, Ransom hunted for sport and to keep food on the family table, while his work ethic kept money in his pocket. His hometown of Thomasville was becoming a center of railroad activity for South Georgia around the same time Ransom purchased his first pair of store bought shoes from a Tallahassee merchant - when he was 20 years old.

This placid period of peaceful existence lasted until the spring of his 28th year. It was then that his state of Georgia seceded from the Union and became part of the new Confederate States of America. Against the hopes and prayers of the common people of his county, in that fateful spring of 1861, war erupted between the Confederacy and the Union, as the South sought its own identity and its independence.


True to duty, Ransom Wheeler volunteered for service to his state and new country in the newly formed Confederate Army. This decision would lead to the greatest adventure of his lifetime.


His regiment, the 29th Georgia Volunteer Regiment, was led by Captain William D. Mitchell, who organized his men along lines similar to those of other companies. There were four lieutenants, seven sergeants, and four corporals. The lieutenants included A. Q. Moody, J. Blackshear Jones, T. N. Gandy, and John James. When the official appointments came through that fall, Mitchell declared that he and his fellow officers "accept the Commissions."


Thomas County furnished six companies in 1861 alone. Before the war ended, six other companies went forward, while several companies remained at home. A Savannah newspaper correspondent wrote in 1862 that:


Thomas County has a voting population of about one thousand - of these she has sent out six organized companies, and in the latest response to the Governor, one more to make seven companies, besides nearly 100 men in other companies organized in adjoining counties - aggregating about seven-hundred and fifty men out of one thousand voters. Others counties in the state may have done better than this - it is not my object to disparage any, but to do justice to those I know. All honor and glory to whom honor and glory belong!


The 29th Georgia Volunteers left Thomas County from the bustling train depot of the county seat of Thomasville on September 30, 1861, to the cheers of a vocal crowd, one of which was county resident Henrietta Eugenia Vickers Armstrong, who noted in her journal, "I met a great many of my old friends and acquaintances at the depot this morning" to see the soldiers off as they left by steam train for Savannah and duty. On the train's roll was Ransom Wheeler, listed as a private on October 1, just two days before his 29th birthday.


Early in November, Thomas County forces were involved in some of the war's first fighting. The 29th Georgia Volunteers and Captain H.C. Bowen's 17th Patriots were among the 450 troops under Colonel William T. Stiles who left Savannah to defend Port Royal, South Carolina against a Union expedition. Although an eventual Union victory, Port Royal was the first engagement to show the mettle of the Thomas Countians. According to one reporting newspaper, "the Thomas County forces did not leave their posts until a peremptory command came from (commander Brig.) Gen. (Thomas F.) Drayton. Even then, some left in conflict, leaving their baggage, but with their arms and honor. (They) behaved with great gallantry."


The next few years of life in the war for Ransom Wheeler and the Twenty-Ninth Georgia was one of constant movement, but limited action. Under the leadership arm of Department of South Carolina and Georgia commanding head Major General John C. Pemberton, the District of Georgia was divided into two brigades. The Second Brigade, commanded by Brigadier General H.W. Mercer, contained Wheeler's regiment. Ransom saw service in and around Charleston during this time.


In September 1862, several companies of the Twenty-Ninth were stationed with the Savannah River batteries, while others were sent to Causton's Bluff. Later in 1862, companies of the Twenty-Ninth saw service in Florida. In January of 1863, the Twenty-Ninth was moved to Wilmington, North Carolina in the district of Cape Fear. Remaining there no longer than two months, the Twenty-Ninth then spent a month at Fort Sumter, South Carolina. In May of 1863, the entire regiment was moved back to Savannah. This move would eventually lead them into some of the most brutal fighting of the war.


General P.G.T. Beuregard, as overall commander of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, ordered the Twenty-Ninth to join Pemberton's forces, then engaged in Mississippi. Under orders to report to the city of Jackson, the 29th arrived in mid-May, near the time the city fell to the Yankees. Unable to establish contact with Pemberton, they retired to Forest Station, 44 miles from Jackson.


It was in July of 1863 that the Twenty-Ninth engaged in its first heavy fighting in the exchanges around Jackson after the fall of Vicksburg. A member of the 29th wrote his wife from Mississippi, "we have had some mity hard marching..."


In the fall of `63, the Twenty-Ninth was part of Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee, and was part of the many battles around Chattanooga, including Mission Ridge, Dalton, and the vicious battle of Chickamauga, where new regiment commander Colonel William J. Young lost his right arm (which would lead to his eventual discharge), and Captain Mitchell was wounded. Totaled, there were nearly 35,000 casualties in this lone, awesome firefight in the north Georgia wilderness. And, it was here, due to his dedication to regiment and to the Confederate army, Ransom C. Wheeler was appointed Corporal.

Throughout 1864, Corporal Wheeler and his regiment were heavily involved in the bitter fighting surrounding Sherman's Georgia Campaign. From the Confederate camps around Atlanta, Cpl. Wheeler wrote to his sister, Mrs. A.C. Holt of Jefferson County, Florida, describing the anticipation of what would be known as the Battle of Atlanta.

Corporal Wheeler wrote:


Camp Near Atlanta, Georgia, July the 18, 1864.


Dear Sister,


It is with great pleasure that I address you with a few lines which is in answer to your very kind letter which came to hand on yesterday bearing the date of July 8, which gave me great pleasure to receive. It found me not very well, though by no means bad off. I have the direut with some fever, but I hope to be better soon. I hope these few lines may find you and the family well. As for news I have none worth your attention.


We are now lying in line for battle, resting, and have been for the past 8 days. I do not think we will stay here much longer, but some think the great battle will be fought here in a few days. As for my part, I can not say but I hope the Almighty God will crown us with a victory over the enemy and enable us to restore peace once more in our once free and happy land, as I think a defeat of the this Yankee army would end this cruel civil war.


We are now on the south side of the Chattahoochee River, five miles north of Atlanta and three miles south of the river. We feel a good deal better by resting and bathing. We are camped on a little creek, the name of it I do not know. It is a very small one. The weather is very warm and most every evening comes a refreshing shower. We have too much rain, which does not suit a soldiers life, though the Lord's will be done, not mine.


Sister, we have some very nice meetings up here. I saw five soldiers baptised on Friday last, and six joined the Methodist church yesterday. Right here at our Regiment there is to be preaching this morning and I think there will be some more who will join today.


Sister, I have some bad news to write you. My little captain died on the 14th day of June from wounds received in battle. On the 15th day of June my company lost seven men and six have been wounded since we left Dalton.


Mr. Stringer sends his love and best respects to you. As I have nothing to write, I will close. Hoping to hear from you soon. Give my love to all inquiring friends, and my best wishes to Mrs. Mumford and her mother and the same to Uncle Dick Taylor.


I remain as ever, your true brother, R. C. Wheeler.


Write as soon as you get time."


Four days later, on July 22, 1864, Corporal Wheeler was badly wounded, shot by Union bullets in the left hand, right shoulder, and left thigh. Incapacitated in the trenches, he was captured by Union forces. Sherman's troops would go on to burn Atlanta to the ground, and eventually cut a 60-mile wide path of destruction through Georgia as they pressed toward the sea and Savannah through the ensuing fall and winter.


Cpl. Wheeler was held as a prisoner of war in the infamous confines of Camp Douglas near Chicago, Illinois until February 20, 1865, when he was sent in a prisoner exchange to Point Lookout, Maryland.


Still hampered by his wounds, Wheeler nonetheless quickly rejoined his compatriots of the 29th Georgia, now led by Captain F.L. Langston, on March 2, 1865, when the regiment moved as part of General Joseph E. Johnston's forces near Smithfield, North Carolina. Wheeler and his Georgians were fated to be part of the bloody battle of Bentonville as Johnston made one last desperate attempt with his now tattered 21,000 Confederates to turn Sherman's masses of over 60,000 Union troops. The carnage of Bentonville was endured three whole days.


During this bitter battle, Cpl. Wheeler was again wounded, this time in the left arm. He was admitted to Confederate States of America General Hospital #11 at Charlotte, North Carolina on March 21, 1865. General Johnston surrendered to Sherman on April 26, 1865 at the Bennet Farmhouse near Durham. The war was over.


After recuperating from his wounds and returning to what was left of his home, Wheeler moved to Leon County, Florida and served as overseer of Walters Plantation, near Miccousukee. After a few years of work on the plantation, he saved enough money to purchase a piece of land in his native Thomas County, and moved back to Georgia.

Wheeler was very proud of his rank of corporal in the Confederate army, and many times in his long life he said he "preferred to hold this position as it allowed (him) to suffer hardships with the soldiers." When asked while applying for his Confederate pension by whose authority he had left the war, he stated "By two Yankee bullets - one in my thigh and one in my shoulder."


On August 10, 1871, he married the daughter of Captain James E. and Louisa M. Norwood of Brooks County, Miss Louisiana Missouri Norwood, with the ceremony taking place in Metcalfe, Georgia. Captain Norwood died shortly after retuning to Brooks County from wounds received in the war. Together, Ransom and Louisiana bore 11 children - nine boys and two girls.


One endearing example of the heart of Corporal Wheeler is shown by his adoption of Joe, a tiny negro baby, who was left behind by his parents in Thomas County when they were freed after the war ended. Joe would grow to adulthood under the care of Cpl. Wheeler & Mrs. Wheeler.


Some years after the war, while on business in Tallahassee, Ransom experienced a sharp pain in his upper back. A doctor was summoned, and made an immediate examination. The doctor quickly took out his knife, and, on the spot, removed an object from Corporal Wheeler's back - the bullet that had lodged in his shoulder during the war! That remarkable momento is still held and treasured today by members of his family.


Ever true to his God, Ransom served as steward in the Old Union Methodist Church in Monticello, Florida for over 60 years. Records show his service was longer than any in church history. According to his grandchildren, "Papa" Wheeler was very active throughout his long life, and at 85 years of age walked seven miles for a few hours stay with one of his daughters.


At noon on January 3, 1918, Corporal Wheeler was walking through a local railroad yard, taking a shortcut to his home, when a freight engine unexpectedly rolled into him. The impact knocked the elder Confederate down, and the engine ran over both legs. He died at 7 pm.


Corporal Ransom C. Wheeler's passing did not diminish the memory of the gallant display of his love for family and homeland, and his service to the South as a member of the 29th Georgia Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Confederate States of America still today wells pride in the hearts of his ancestors. Long may his example, alongside countless others who valiantly served for their homeland, be revered and remembered!”


There were five Webb brothers who were born and grew up in Giles County, Tennessee.   Their names were Albert Hiram (A.H.) Webb, Thomas Jones (Jones) Webb, Louis Webb, William Webb, and Edward Jefferson (Bud) Webb.   Four of the Webb brothers fought in the Civil War in the 1860's.  Richard Carroll's great great grandfather, Bud, was too young to go to war, and maybe because there were four other brothers in the war, they did not call him to go fight.  Two brothers died in the Civil War, Louis and William. Jones, Hiram, and Louis were in the 32nd Tennessee Infantry. William enlisted in the 6th Tennessee Cavalry.


When Confederate General Braxton Bragg began his retreat from Tennessee in the summer of 1863, the 32nd Tennessee moved toward Chattanooga and on the 2nd of September was at Lafayette, Georgia. From there the 32nd Tennessee moved to Chickamauga, Georgia, on the 18th of September and the next day was engaged in the two day Battle of Chickamauga. The 32nd Tennessee fought as the center regiment of Brown's Brigade. The regiment had 900 men and officers when the battle began. Some reports indicate that only 361 men were able for duty. The 2nd Tennessee suffered more than 165 casualties, killed and wounded. One company lost 19 out of a total of 23. General John C. Brown was wounded on the 2nd day of the battle.


The Thursday morning, October 8, 1863, edition of the CHATTANOOGA DAILY REBEL reported these Giles County casualties:

Company F:  (wounded)

Serg't T J Webb, severely in ankle and amputated.

D S Webb, slightly in thigh.

A H Webb, slightly in foot.


Little Round Top


COL Joshua Chamberlain's 20th Maine fought off the Confederates at Little Round Top on 2 July 1863.  He held the line, ran out of ammunition, fixed bayonets, and charged the rebels downhill.


On the night of April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford’s Theater, Washington, D.C.  Lincoln died the next morning in a house just across the street.  Just five days before the shooting, Lee had surrendered to Grant at Appomattox.  Lincoln lived long enough to see the Union preserved, but not long enough to help in healing the wounds left by the war.



Presidential Box, Ford’s Theater, Washington, D.C.                                  Fort Concho, San Angelo, TX


Established in 1867, along the banks of the Concho River, Fort Concho was built to protect frontier settlements, patrol and map the vast West Texas region, and quell hostile threats in the area.  In June 1889, the last soldiers marched away from Fort Concho and the fort was deactivated.  After 22 years Fort Concho's role in settling the Texas frontier was over.



Fort Worth Historic Stockyards


In 1849 Major Ripley Arnold and a troop of soldiers were ordered to set up Fort Worth and protect the settlers in North Texas. By 1853, the frontier moved west. The fort was abandoned and the buildings that were left became the town of Fort Worth. By 1856 the citizens stole the county records from Birdville and won the county seat. Soon Fort Worth became a frequent stop for cattlemen herding through the area. Wild longhorns that roamed the open range were free for the taking. Many cowboys herded them up, branded them, and drove them north for a large profit. By 1866, the city had earned its reputation as "Cowtown," and was in the middle of the Chisholm Trail. The city now began to prosper as a leader in the cattle business. Many travelers looking for a break in the monotony of traveling the open range now frequented Fort Worth. There they found hot meals, saloons, gambling and bordellos. The town soon earned a reputation as "Hells half acre." Even Butch Cassidy and The Hole-in-the-wall Gang found the city an entertaining place to stop. By 1872, the citizens of Fort Worth were eager to connect to the railroad. Plans were mapped out, resembling a tarantula to many. In 1876, despite numerous difficulties, it was completed. With the opening of various meat-packing companies, Fort Worth was soon to become one of the major beef suppliers in the country, and continued to be until the 1960s. It was then that the Swift and Armour companies closed their doors.


Booger Red Privett - You may ask, "where did you get that name?"  Well, here's the story:  Booger Red is a definite Texas thing and usually has to do with having red hair and being tough and ugly.  Samuel Thomas Privett (1858-1926) applied his Bronc-Busting skills to performing in his own touring wild west show and achieving championship fame in rodeos and world fairs. He made breaking horses his business.  Privett became one of the most legendary rodeo performers in Texas, once having 86 bronco rides in one day. He would advertise his shows by saying “Come and see him ride! The ugliest cowboy dead or alive!” Privett would pay anyone $100 who could bring a horse he couldn’t ride. No one ever collected.


Booger (Sherry Fields’ great-great uncle) was born on a ranch near Dublin, Erath County, Texas, on December 29, 1858 and as a youth seemed to possess all the vim, vigor, and vitality that makes the red-head outstanding. At the age of 10 he began riding wild calves on his father's ranch and by the time he was 12 years of age he was widely known as the Red-Headed Kid Bronc-Rider and was already on the road to fame. He was the youngest of a large family and was always trying to imitate some stunt of his older brothers. In attempting to make his own fireworks on his 13th Christmas as he had seen others do, he and a pal crammed a lot of gun powder into a hole bored into an old tree stump and when it exploded it killed his friend and blew him about twenty feet. His face was hopelessly burned and for six months he did not see daylight. His eyes were cut open three times and his mouth and nose twice. As he was being carried to the hospital in a farm wagon, a small boy friend hopped on the side of the wagon, looked over at Red and thoughtlessly remarked, 'Gee, but Red is sure a booger now, ain't he?' Thus, the famous "Booger Red" nickname which went with him to his grave. His parents died when he was 15 years old and he started out in the world to make his own way at the job which he loved most, that of breaking wild horses. None were too bad for him to tackle and he made a name for himself in a country where there were plenty of bronc scratchers. By the time he was grown he had saved enough to buy and stock a small ranch near Sabinal, Texas, but he soon sold that and purchased the wagon yard in San Angelo, Texas. He married Mollie Webb at the little west Texas town of Bronte, in 1895. She and their six children who became famous in show life were great assets to the show business which he established later. He died of Bright's disease at Miami, Oklahoma, in 1924.



The Booger Red Saloon, Fort Worth Stockyards, TX


Booger Red's last performance was at the Fat Stock Show at Fort Worth in 1924 just a short time before he died. He had retired and went to Fort Worth just to see the show. To keep from being recognized he wore a cap instead of his big white hat, and low quarters instead of boots and slipped in on the top seat of the grandstand. He was enjoying the performances when trouble arose in the arena with an outlaw horse. The rider was thrown and the crowd yelled, “Give us Booger Red.”  He sat as still as a mouse until an old lady at his elbow recognized him and shrieked, “Here he is!”  The crowd went wild and would not be put off. He made his way calmly down through the audience until he reached the bottom step where he was hoisted on the shoulders of the cheering throng and carried to the arena. He rode the old horse to a finish and many said it was the prettiest riding they ever saw. He was at that time probably the oldest man on record to make such a ride.


Booger Red is the namesake of the Booger Red’s Saloon in Fort Worth where their motto is “Red on the Head, Ugly as a Booger.”



Buckingham Palace, London, England



                                                                         Haiti                                                           Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria



                               Nueschwanstein Castle, Fussen, Germany                                   Princeton (dark uniforms) vs. Yale, Princeton, NJ


November 6, 1869 marked the first-ever intercollegiate football game.  The teams were Princeton and Rutgers (played in New Brunswick, NJ).  The Princeton-Yale rivalry goes back to 1870.



                                                                  Tower Bridge, London, England                                                Black Forest, Germany


Early in the 19th century, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm began to collect German folktales and subsequently publish their own adaptations.  Some of the settings in their stories were heavily influenced by the Black Forest.


Statue of Liberty, off the coast of New Jersey.


In 1886, the French gave the Statue of Liberty to the U.S. because of its Revolutionary War friendship.  It was shipped in 350 pieces.  Gustave Eiffel helped with the structure.


The Arche de Triomphe was commissioned in 1806 by Napoleon following his victory at Austerlitz.  The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the eternal flame commemorating the dead of the two world wars lies beneath the arch.



                                                           Arche de Triomphe, Paris, France                      Eiffel Tower, Paris, France


The Eiffel Tower was built as a centennial memorial of the French Revolution for the International Exhibition of Paris of 1889.  The Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII of England, opened the tower. Of the 700 proposals submitted in a design competition, Gustave Eiffel's design was the one unanimously chosen.



Note:  While I make every effort to produce an error-free document, errors occasionally creep in. I would appreciate you bringing any to my attention so that I may make the necessary corrections.



Email Me



Ancient World History










Medieval World History


Renaissance/Reformation World History


Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (YOU ARE HERE)






    Pacific Theater


    European Theater


Modern World History




Back Home