Hannibal wanted to test early Rome,
he brought 34 elephants over the Alps.
Good weapons--bad route. He lost most of them in the high altitudes.
Lepton (or, Widow's Mite)
This coin (Widow's Mite)
is a bronze coin issued by King Alexander Jannaeus, the Great Grand Nephew of
Judah Macabee and the Jewish leader of the Holy Land from 103-76 BCE (Jannaeus
wiped out the population at Gaza, then crucified 800 of his opponents; he
expanded Israel to its greatest extent before handing over power to his
wife--Salome Alexander, the only Jewish queen). It is this type of coin
that circulated in the Holy Land during Jesus'
life. The two dominant symbols that are found on the coin are an anchor and a
star with 8 rays. The anchor was adopted from the Seleucids, who
used it to symbolize their naval strength. Anchors are depicted upside
down, as they would be seen hung on the side of a boat ready for use. The
star symbolizes heaven. The diadem symbolizes royalty.
Roman Empire spread through all Europe. So far, in fact, that Rome lost control in later years.
Remnants of Rome's
walls, gates, and amphitheaters still stand throughout Europe.
In 179 CE the Roman fortress Castra Regina ("fortress by the river
Regen") was founded for the Third Italic Legion during the reign of
Emperor Marcus Aurelius. The Porta Praetoria in Regensburg, Germany
was one of many gates to the fortress.
Regensburg, Germany ††††††† Roman Wall, London
Arch of Titus, Rome
After a Jewish revolt, the
Roman General Titus destroyed Jerusalem
in 70 CE. The arch commemorating his victory depicts soldiers
carrying away treasures out of the temple. He was nice enough, though, to
leave one wall remaining at Herod's temple (on the west side).† Rome used the
plunder from Jerusalem
to fund the 80 thousand-seat capacity Coliseum. †By the way, Herodís Temple blocks on the retaining wall are 42X11X14,
and 600 tons each.† Yeah, thatís bigger
than the Pyramid blocks.† The Temple mount area is
equivalent to 30 football fields.† You
think Herod was trying to win over the Jews?
was brother-in-law to Diocletian (who dished out the most severe persecutions
Christian ever endured). He was appointed governor of Balkans and chose Thessaloniki as his
base. The Arch of Galerius was built in his honor upon his
triumphal return from a victorious campaign against the Persians (305
CE). The Via Egnatia ran underneath the arch.
Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki, Greece
Porta Nigra, Trier, Germany
The Roman Gate at Trier (Porta Nigra, 2nd
cent.) is the largest Roman Gate north of the Alps.
Trier, the oldest city in Germany, was
established in 16 BCE by Augustus.† It
was Constantine's capital city before the battle
of Milvian Bridge.
after Christ died, Paul of Tarsus took Christ's message to the world. On
one particular stop in Ephesus,
he caused an uproar when his preaching threatened to bring down sales of
†††††††††††††††††††† Sinaiticus, The
British Library, London
the help of inspired writers like Peter, Paul, and John, letters from Christ's
apostles began to circulate throughout the Roman Empire.
Copies were made in various places. Some of these copies ended up in a
monastery in Egypt
(St. Catherine's on Mt.
Sinaiticus is one of the most important finds in Biblical literature.
It is a 4th century manuscript which originally contained the entire Old and
New Testaments, discovered by Constantin von Tischendorf in 1844.
until 313 CE did Christians win the right to worship freely and win converts to
made this possible after a victory over his chief rival to the throne,
Maxentius, at which--tradition holds--Constantine
claimed to have won by the "sign of the cross" (whatever that
means). Here is the arch commemorating that victory.
Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy
This first coin (Camp-Gate of
Constantine) is an early camp gate reverse
I. The abstract representation of the fortified portcullis and gate of a
permanent Roman army fort or garrison town is intended to symbolize the power of
the Roman army to protect the empire's subjects from civil war and external
invasion. The style as well as the size of these camp gate coins changed over
the next 140 years. There is no evidence that the camp--or perhaps city--gate
shown refers to a specific edifice in Rome
or elsewhere, but rather it represents the idea of strength and security
provided by walls and the army at a time of disturbance.
other coin (Constantine with Standards) has a pearl-diademed head facing
right on the obverse, and two soldiers with two standards on the reverse. The
obverse inscription reads CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC (IVN--"the younger",
the Second; NOB--Nobilissimus, most highly regarded; C--Caesar. The
reverse reads GLORIA EXERCITVS (meaning "Glory of the Army").
Camp-Gate of Constantine †††††††††††††††††††† Constantine with Standards
Note:† While I
make every effort to produce an error-free document, errors occasionally creep
in. I would appreciate you bringing any to my attention so that I may make the
Ancient World History
Roman (YOU ARE HERE)
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Modern World History